Biomaterials are classified as natural or synthetic materials which can be used for repair, replace, or regenerate tissues. This field employs the combination of materials science, biological science, and engineering concepts and techniques to design and synthesize biomimetic and bioactive materials to accurately model natural structures and functions in the body.
Vascularization of Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering
Stabilization of the ECFC-lined capillaries by perivascular cells
Constructs containing both DsRed-ECFCs and MSCs were cultured for 7 d in GelMA hydrogels with different methacrylation degrees. The ability of the MSCs to differentiate into perivascular cells was analyzed by confocal microscopy after immunoflourescence staining with antibodies against smooth muscle markers. a,c) Representative confocal images showing the spatial distribution of the DsRed-ECFC-lined capillaries surrounded by α SMA-expressing MSCs. Higher magnification images depicting details of a capillary (top) and a cross-section image taken in the direction of the white arrows (bottom) are shown to the right of the these images in panels (a) and (c). b,d) Representative confocal images showing the spatial distribution of both DsRed-ECFC-lined capillaries surrounded by sm-MHC-expressing MSCs. A representative video of a rotating 3D reconstruction of confocal images showing MSC-wrapped capillaries is available (Video 2, Supporting Information).
Engineering surgical sealants, tissue adhesives, and hemostats
Tensile test on MeTro gel and immunostaining of cardiomyocyte markers on the patterned MeTro gel. Hydrogels stained for sarcomeric α -actinin (green)/connexin-43 (red)/nuclei (blue).
DNA based glues
Fabrication of hydrogel cubes with uniform giant DNA glue modification. (a) Schematic of the fabrication process of hydrogel cubes uniformly modified with giant DNA. Phase contrast (b,e), fluorescent (c,f) and SEM (d,g) images of hydrogels carrying short 56-nt single-stranded DNA primers (b–d) or amplified single-stranded giant DNA (e–g). The gels in c and f were stained with SYBR Gold before imaging. Scale bar, 200 mm in b, c, e and f; scale bar, 10 mm in d and g.